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Traditional reagent strip testing for protein uses the principle of the protein error of indicators to produce a visible colorimetric reaction. Regulating diet mainly controls urinary pH, although using medication can also control it.

The test used in the urine test strips is based on the reaction of sodium nitroprusside nitroferricyanide. It provides significantly enhanced coverage of body fluids, amniotic fluid, feces, CSF, and metabolic diseases, particularly in the areas of anatomy and physiology, function, and recent advances in testing.

The detection of urinary bilirubin is an early indication of liver disease and its presence or absence can be used to determine the causes of clinical jaundice. False-positive readings are obtained when the reaction does not take place under acidic conditions. Uromodulin produced by the renal tubular epithelial cells and proteins from prostatic, seminal, and vaginal secretions.

Urinary infections can be identified including bacteriuria and pyuria. Under normal conditions nearly all the glucose removed in the glomerulus is reabsorbed in the proximal convoluted tubule. Both contain an acid buffer to maintain the pH at a constant level. Retrieved 13 March The control of urinary ketone is particularly useful in managing and monitoring diabetes mellitus type 1.

For this reason the manufacturers recommend that 5 units are added to the specific gravity reading when the pH is greater than 6. False-positive reactions due to menstrual contamination may be seen. CS1 Spanish-language sources es CS1 maint: Some urine test strips are protected against the interference with iodate, which eliminates ascorbic acid by oxidation.


The formaldehyde used as a preservative produces false negatives in both reactions. In many liver diseases the patients often show signs of pathology only at a late stage. Large numbers of bacteria can react to reduce nitrite to nitrogen, which will give a false negative result.

The test for nitrites is a rapid screening method for possible asymptomatic infections caused by nitrate-reducing bacteria. False negatives gaff also be given by poorly stored samples as the bilirubin is photosensitive and undergoes photo oxidation to biliverdin when it is prina to light, or hydrolysis of the glucuronide can occur producing free bilirubin which is less reactive. Views Read Edit View history. The pH of urine normally vary between 4. Hematuria produces cloudy red urine, and hemoglobinuria appears as a clear red specimen.


Reagent strip tests can detect concentrations as low as five red blood cells per microliter; however, care must be taken when comparing these figures with the actual microscopic values, because the absorbent nature of the pad attracts some of urine. The test method consists of immersing the test strip completely in a well mixed sample of urine for a short period of time, then extracting it from the container and supporting the edge of the strip over the mouth of the container to remove excess urine.

An increase in fat metabolism can be the result of starvation or malabsorptionthe inability to metabolize carbohydrates as occurs, for example, in diabetes or due to losses from frequent vomiting. Microscopic examination of the urinary sediment shows intact red blood cells, but free hemoglobin produced either by hemolytic disorders or lysis of red blood cells is not detected. It uses case studies and clinical situations to promote problem-solving and critical-thinking skills.

It was only towards the end of the 18th century that doctors interested in chemistry turned their attention to the scientific basis of urinalysis and to its use in practical medicine. In contrast, intact red blood cells are lysed when they come in contact with the pad, and the liberated hemoglobin produces an isolated reaction that results in a speckled pattern on the pad.


Análisis de orina: atlas color

Automated readers of test strips also provide results using units from the International System of Units. The balance is maintained through the controlled excretion of acidic hydrogens in the form of ammonia ions, monohydrogenated phosphateweak organic acids and through the reabsorption of bicarbonate through glomerular filtration in the convoluted tubules of the nephron.

The test strips use a diazotization reaction in order to detect bilirubin. Poorly stored samples can yield false negative results as the urobilinogen suffers photo oxidation to urobilin that does not react. It is normal to find up to 3 occasionally 5 leukocytes per high power field 40X in a urine sample, with women having slightly higher results owing to vaginal contamination.

Urine test strip – Wikipedia

The detection limit of a test is that concentration, at which the test starts to turn from negative to positive. It covers quality assurance and management, including requirements of accrediting agencies.

The colours vary from dark blue with a reading of 1. The use of antibiotics will inhibit bacterial metabolism causing negative results even though bacteria are present.

This page was last edited on 3 Decemberat Bulletin of the Orlna College of Surgeons of England. Commercial brands measure pH in increments of 0. The most common causes of hematuria are: Archived copy as title link.