Find the most up-to-date version of ASTM E at Engineering ASTM E() [ Withdrawn ]. Standard Test Method for Gross Calorific Value of Refuse-Derived Fuel by the Bomb Calorimeter. Designation: E – 87 (Reapproved ) Standard Test Method for. Gross Calorific Value of Refuse-Derived Fuel by the Bomb Calorimeter1 This standard.

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The following precautions are recommended for safe calorimeter operation: Fire the charge at the start of the sixth minute and record the time and temperature. Record this as the final temperature. The apparatus should be shielded from direct sunlight and radiation from other sources. A more dilute standard solution may be used for higher sensitivity. Differential stem correction 5 1 0. This procedure is acceptable, provided it is used in all tests, including standardization.

ASTM E (Re-approved ) – International Standards

Determine the correction for HNO3, and firing wire. For this reason significant care should be exercised to obtain a representative laboratory sample for the RDF lot to be characterized. It shall have a device for stirring the water thoroughly and at a uniform rate, but with minimum heat input. Remove and measure or weigh the combined pieces of unburned firing wire, and subtract from the original length or weight to determine the wire consumed in firing.

Calorific value is determined in this method by burning a weighed analysis sample in an oxygen bomb calorimeter under controlled conditions.

The usual range of weight is 0. Adjust the jacket temperature to be equal to or slightly lower than the calorimeter, and run for 5 min to obtain equilibrium. Thermometer Accessories – A magnifier is required for reading mercury-in-glass thermometers to one tenth of the smallest scale division. The calorific value is computed from temperature observations made before and after combustion, taking proper allowance for thermometer and thermochemical corrections.

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ASTM E711 – 87 Gross Calorific Calorimeter

After the rapid-rise period about 4 to 5 minrecord temperatures at 1 min intervals on the minute until the difference between successive readings has been constant for 5 min. Bomb parts should be inspected carefully after each use. Firing Wire – Connect a measured length of firing wire to the ignition terminals with enough slack to allow the firing wire to maintain contact with the sample.

The standard solution 0. Recommended hygienic practices include use of gloves when handling RDF and washing hands before eating or smoking. Continuous stirring for 10 min shall not raise the calorimeter temperature more than 0. Oxygen – free of combustible matter. The bomb shall be capable of withstanding a hydrostatic pressure test to 21 MPa psig at room temperature without stressing any part beyond its elastic limit. During ignition of a sample, the operator shall not permit any portion of his body to extend over the calorimeter.

The chairman of E These thermometers shall be tested for accuracy against a known standard preferably by the National Bureau of Standards at intervals no greater than 2.

The weight of solid fuel sample and the pressure of the oxygen admitted to the bomb must not exceed the bomb manufacturer’s recommendations. Other thermometers of equal or better accuracy are satisfactory.

Time is expressed in minutes. The laboratory sample must be air-dried and particle size reduced to pass a 0. Made to help students memorize the basics of muscles.

Lp Gross Hematuri 1Deskripsi lengkap. Net Calorific Value – a lower value calculated from the gross calorific value. Calorimetric-Type Platinum Resistance Thermometer,tested for accuracy against a known standard.

Firing e7711 shall be mm of No. For this purpose, any individual run may be discarded only if there is evidence indicating incomplete combustion. Test Room – The apparatus should be operated in a room or area free of drafts that can be kept at a reasonably uniform temperature and humidity for the time required for the determination.

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Make each determination in accordance with the procedure described in Section 11, and compute the corrected temperature rise. Determine the sulfur content of the sample by any of the procedures described in Test Methods E Each millilitre of standard alkali is equivalent to This represents a change of 0. Tap mercurial thermometers with a pencil just before reading to avoid errors caused by mercury sticking to the walls of the capillary.

Either isothermal or e11 calorimeter jackets may be used. Controlled room temperature and humidity are desirable. Wastes processed to coarse particle size with or without ferrous metal separation.

If the bomb is lined with platinum or gold, all openings shall be sealed to prevent combustion products from reaching the base metal. E711 form of compaction may be necessary to ensure satisfactory ignition and complete combustion. Carefully weigh approximately 1g of the sample directly into the crucible in which it is adtm be burned or into a tared weighing w711 which the sample is transferred to the crucible. Carefully weigh approximately 1 g of the sample directly into the crucible in which it is to be burned or into a tared weighing scoop from which the sample is transferred to the crucible.

The pressure gage shall be checked periodically for accuracy. The amount of water g is usual can be most satisfactorily determined by weighing the calorimeter vessel and water together on a balance. The bomb shall be capable of withstanding asttm hydrostatic pressure test of 21 MPa psig at room temperature without stressing any part beyond its elastic limit.

The calorific value, or heat of combustion, is a measure of the energy available from the fuel.