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Medicinal plants were experimentally studied in vitro 19 plants and in vivo 8 plants. National Center for Biotechnology InformationU. In the order of most endangered, Juglans jamaicensisCedrela odorataand Lophophora williamsii are cataloged as vulnerable, whereas Taxodium mucronatumRhizophora mangleEysenhardtia polystachyaCordia alliodoraand Hymenaea courbaril are cataloged as of least concern [ 99 ].

Anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects of a hypoglycemic fructan fraction from Psacalium peltatum H. An immunostimulatory agent is responsible for strengthening the resistance of the body against pathogens.

To our knowledge, there are no pharmacokinetic studies carried out with plant compounds cited in this review.

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Wp H 2 O Proliferation of murine primary lymphocytes 1. View at Google Scholar R. View at Google Scholar P.

The interleukins link the communication between cells of the immune system, facilitating innate immune reactions. Smilaxin, a novel protein with immunostimulatory, antiproliferative, and HIVreverse transcriptase inhibitory activities from fresh Smilax glabra rhizomes.

These two components inhibit the mitochondrial respiration and the DNA replication of pathogens and cancer cells [ 7 ]. Structure elucidation of an immunoenhancing pectic polysaccharide isolated from aqueous extract of pods of green bean Phaseolus vulgaris L. The criteria for the selection of reports in this lara were as follows: A total of 20 plants, belonging to 15 botanical families, have in vitro studies regarding their immunostimulatory effects Table 2.

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Family Scientific name Plant part Extract Model of immunosuppression and duration of the experiment [range of dose sqlud Immunostimulatory effects compared to immunosuppressed mice Reference Anacardiaceae Amphipterygium adstringens Schltdl.

In ancient traditional medicine, the term immunostimulant was unknown. Author information Article notes Copyright and License information Disclaimer. This review provides ethnomedicinal, phytochemical, and pharmacological information about plants and their active compounds used as immunostimulants in Mexico, Central America, and the Caribbean.

Pharmacological properties of the carob tree Hymenaea courbaril Linneaus interesting for the food industry. Search of immunomodulatory agents. Taking this into consideration, further studies with plants from the Smilax and Juglans genera should be carried out.

In vitro immunostimulatory effects of plant compounds. However, the toxicity of the mistletoe species should be assessed. Among the in vitro studies, Lophophora williamsii was one of the plant species that showed good immunostimulatory effects. Immunomodulatory activities of Punarnavine, an alkaloid from Boerhaavia diffusa.

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Nevertheless, the in vivo immunostimulatory effects remain to be performed with Justicia spicigerakaempferitrin, and masticadienonic acid. Monografias de plantas utilizadas como anticancerigenas en la medicina tradicional Hidalguense [Ph.

The macrophage as a secretory cell. Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico; For instance, Xanthium strumarium is considered herbolzria toxic plant.

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This indicates that ethnobotanical knowledge is a valuable tool, which supports the selection of plants to carry out pharmacological studies. We may therefore infer that immunostimulatory plants may also be used for the treatment and prevention of infections.

View at Google Scholar Y. The following keywords were used to search for the academic information: Of these plants, 28 have pharmacological studies Table 1and 76 plants lacked pharmacological research regarding their immunostimulatory activity Table 6.

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Medicinal Plants from Mexico, Central America, and the Caribbean Used as Immunostimulants We documented plant species belonging to 55 families that have been used as immunostimulants.

This might be due to a the lack of established methodologies for their quantitation, b the quantity of the obtained compound being not enough paa carry out a pharmacokinetic study, and c many plants extracts not being chemically characterized, and there is no main metabolite for its quantification using HPLC.

Indexed in Science Citation Index Expanded. Las plantas medicinales de la selva alta perennifolia de los Tuxtlas, Veracruz: The immune system is a complex organization of leukocytes, antibodies, and blood factors that protect the body against pathogens [ 1 ].

To receive news and publication updates for Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine, enter your email address in the box below. Carlowrightia cordifolia showed poor immunostimulatory effects [ 17 ]. This was confirmed, for many plant species, by oara our previous work [ 94 ]. Therefore, we highly recommend evaluating the immunostimulatory herolaria of medicinal plants used for cancer treatment.

In the order of most endangered, Juglans jamaicensisCedrela odorataand Lophophora williamsii are cataloged as vulnerable, whereas Taxodium mucronatumRhizophora mangleEysenhardtia polystachyaCordia alliodoraand Hymenaea courbaril are cataloged as of least concern [ 99 ].

Asteraceae induces immunostimulatory effects in vitro and in vivo. Recently, it was described that this plant induces hepatotoxicity [ 97 ]. Proliferation of lymphocytes 0. This was confirmed, for many plant species, by consulting our previous work [ 94 ].